Physically, Bhutan can be divided into three zones: Alpine Zone (4000m and
above) with no forest cover; the Temperate Zone (2000 to 4000m) with conifer or
broadleaf forests; and the Subtropical Zone (150m to 2000m) with Tropical or
Subtropical vegetation. Ensuing from its wide range of altitude and climate,
compounded by its 72 percent forest cover, the flora and fauna of Bhutan is
diverse and rich.
Forest types in Bhutan are
Fir Forests, Mixed Conifer Forest, Blue Pine Forest, Chirpine Forest, Broadleaf
mixed with Conifer, Upland Hardwood Forest, Lowland Hardwood Forest, and
Tropical Lowland Forests. More than 60 percent of the common plant species of
the Eastern Himalayas can be found within Bhutan.
Blue PoppyThere are also 46 species of Rhododendrons and
over 300 types of medicinal plants. Junipers, magnolias, carnivorous plants,
rare orchids, blue poppy (the national flower), edelweiss, gentian, medicinal
plants, daphne, giant rhubarb, high-altitude plants, tropical trees, pine and
oak are also common sights.
Red PandaBhutan is heaven to a wide range of animals. Snow
leopard, blue sheep, red panda, tiger, takin, marmot and musk deer are some of
the species found in the high altitude. Temperate zone is a habitat to Tiger,
leopard, goral, gray langur, Himalayan black beer, red panda, sambar, wild pig,
and barking deer. The tropical forests in the south have tiger, clouded leopard,
elephants, one horned Rhinoceros, water buffalo, golden langur, gaur, swamp
deer, hog deer horn bills, among many others.
Bhutan is also considered a place favorable for birds. It is recognized as an
area of high biological diversity and is known as the East Himalayan.